The Science & Safety of Carbon Monoxide in
Organ Transplant

Donor organ shortage limits all other growth in the transplant field Since ~1990, annual transplants have doubled but waiting lists have grown 6X

Aging population and declining metabolic health have both increased need for transplants (diabetes, liver disease) and reduced quality of median donor organs. Lower quality organs increase graft dysfunction risk. 80% of potential donor lungs are declined. 20% of donor kidneys are discarded

Therapeutic Carbon Monoxide: Controlled dosing, multi-modal organ protection

“All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; the dosage alone makes it so a thing is not a poison.” – Paracelsus, 1538

In Vivo Therapeutics
Effects of CO

Controlled CO-dosing has demonstrated strong cyto-protective, immuno-modulatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects while demonstrating strong safety:


CO dosed in over a dozen human clinical studies to date, with tight control over blood CO levels and no major side effects


>20 studies published in preclinical transplant models, shown to

  • Improve kidney and liver preservation in rats and pigs
  • Prevent lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic rejection in rodents
  • Improve islet cell survival
  • Reduce small bowel transplant IRI in rats
  • Improve cardiac allograft survival in rodents
  • Prevent aortic allograft vasculopathy in mice
  • Our CO and inhalational platform has been developed & validated by >$30M NIH/DoD funding to scientific co-founder Augustine Choi to study CO in IPF & ARDS

    CO has been identified as a key therapeutic opportunity, with strong evidence for both safety & efficacy